A study, published recently in Nature Medicine, has demonstrated that the experimental drug LCL-161 causes robust anti-myeloma activity through stimulation of the immune system. LCL-161 is a small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) which was originally developed to promote tumour cell death via apoptosis. However, in this study robust anti-myeloma activity was observed via upregulation of interferon signalling and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition, LCL-161 provided long term anti-myeloma protection in a myeloma mouse model, particularly when combined with an immune checkpoint inhibitor. The researchers suggest their data provide a platform for future clinical trials of LDL-161 in myeloma patients.