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Dental and oral late effects

Nearly all myeloma patients are treated with bisphosphonates and should undergo regular dental review to help identify the risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). Xerostomia can occur due to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and some supportive care drugs. Mouth dryness and decreased salivation increase the risk of infection and may lead to oral candidiasis. Taste changes, soreness of the throat and/or problems in speaking and swallowing may also be experienced.

Ophthalmic late effects

Myeloma patients may develop cataracts due to the natural aging process, but the use of high-dose steroids and treatment with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant are both risk factors for cataract formation. Diabetic eye disease may be increased in myeloma patients who are treated with high-dose corticosteroids.