The Myeloma Nurse Guide Series has been developed to enhance nurse knowledge, inform practice and support nurses in the delivery of high quality treatment and care to myeloma patients and families.

Each of these concise guides covers the key points for nurses caring for patients experiencing complications and treatment side effects. Also included are links to relevant assessment tools and patient information.

The information has been reviewed by myeloma nurse and medical experts and should be used in conjunction with local and national policies, protocols and guidelines.

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AL amyloidosis

In AL amyloidosis, amyloid fibrils, composed of abnormal light chain proteins, are produced by abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell disorder but as the plasma cells are not truly cancerous, it is not regarded as a cancer. It is however closely related to myeloma and is diagnosed in…


The majority of myeloma patients have regular treatment with bisphosphonates during their disease course. This guide has information on the drugs used, why they are important, and nursing management of side effects.

Bone Disease

Around 70% of myeloma patients have bone disease at diagnosis. This guide describes why this can happen, the clinical features, investigations, treatment and nursing management.

Emotional and psychological changes

This guide gives information on the emotional and psychological impact myeloma can have on patients and families. It covers the changes that can occur, common symptoms and how anxiety and depression is assessed and managed.


Most patients with myeloma experience fatigue, particularly when on treatment. This guide has information on the causes of fatigue, how it is assessed and treated, and the nursing management involved.

Gastrointestinal toxicities

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation are common side effects experienced by myeloma patients. This guide has information on the symptoms, assessment, treatment and nursing management involved.

Myeloma kidney disease

The kidneys are commonly affected by myeloma with potentially serious complications. This guide describes why kidney disease occurs, the assessment and monitoring of renal function, and the treatment and nursing management involved.


Bone marrow function is affected by myeloma and is a common side effect of many treatments. This guide outlines the symptoms, assessment, treatment and nursing management of myelosuppression in myeloma.

Oral Mucositis

A common side effect of stem cell transplantation, mucositis can be painful and debilitating. This guide covers the symptoms that can occur, how mucositis is assessed and managed, and strategies to prevent or reduce its impact.

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is a side effect that can negatively impact patients’ activities and quality of life. This guide describes the symptoms, assessment, treatment and nursing management involved.


Steroids are drugs which mimic certain natural hormones in the body. They regulate metabolic, immunologic, cardiovascular, and homeostatic function.

Venous Thromboembolism

Myeloma patients have a greater risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). This guide covers the symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and the assessment, prevention, treatment and nursing management involved.

Key references

General references for the nurse guide series, and those specific to each guide, are provided for here for further reading.